Hermann Hesse in 1927Hermann Hesse (2 July 1877 – 9 August 1962)
was a German-Swiss poet, novelist, and painter. In 1946, he received
the Nobel Prize in Literature. His best known works include Steppenwolf,
Siddhartha, and The Glass Bead Game (also known as Magister Ludi).
Hermann Hesse was
born on July 2, 1877 in the Black Forest town of Calw in Württemberg,
Germany to a Christian Missionary family. Both of his parents served
with a Basel Mission to India, where Hesse's mother Marie Gundert was
born in 1842. Hesse's father, Johannes Hesse, was born in 1847 in Estonia
as the son of a doctor. The Hesse family had lived in Calw since 1873,
where they operated a missionary publishing house under the direction
of Hesse's grandfather, Hermann Gundert.
Hermann Hesse spent
his first years of life surrounded by the spirit of Swabian piety. In
1881 the family moved to Basel, Switzerland for five years, then returned
to Calw. After successful attendance at the Latin School in Göppingen,
Hesse began to attend the Evangelical Theological Seminary in Maulbronn
in 1891. Here in March 1892, Hesse showed his rebellious character:
he fled from the Seminary and was found in a field a day later.
During this time,
Hesse began a journey through various institutions and schools, and
experienced intense conflicts with his parents. It was also at about
this time that his bipolar disorder began to affect him, and he mentioned
suicidal thoughts in a letter from March 20, 1892. In May, after an
attempt at suicide, he spent time at an institution in Bad Boll under
the care of theologian and minister Christoph Friedrich Blumhardt. Later
he was placed in a mental institution in Stetten im Remstal, and then
a boys' institution in Basel.
At the end of 1892,
he attended the Gymnasium in Cannstatt. In 1893, he passed the One Year
Examination, which concluded his schooling.
After this, he began
a bookshop apprenticeship in Esslingen am Neckar, but after three days
he left. Then in the early summer of 1894, he began a fourteen month
mechanic apprenticeship at a clock tower factory in Calw. The monotony
of soldering and filing work made him resolve to turn himself toward
more spiritual activities. In October 1895, he was ready to begin wholeheartedly
a new apprenticeship with a bookseller in Tübingen. This experience
from his youth he returns to later in his novel, Beneath the Wheel.
On October 17, 1895,
Hesse began working in the bookshop Heckenhauer in Tübingen, which
had a collection specializing in theology, philology, and law. Hesse's
assignment there consisted of organizing, packing, and archiving the
books. After the end of each twelve hour workday, Hesse pursued his
own work further, and he used his long, free Sundays with books rather
than social contacts. Hesse studied theological writings, and later
Goethe, Lessing, Schiller, and several texts on Greek mythology. In
1898, Hesse had a respectable income that enabled his financial independence
from his parents. During this time, he concentrated on the works of
the German Romantics, including much of the work from Clemens Brentano,
Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff, Friedrich Holderlin and Novalis. In
letters to his parents, he expressed a belief that "the morality
of artists is replaced by aesthetics."
In the fall, Hesse
released his first small volume of poetry, Romantic Songs and in the
summer of 1899, a collection of prose, entitled One Hour After Midnight.
Both works were a business failure. In two years, only 54 of the 600
printed copies of Romantic Songs were sold, and One Hour After Midnight
received only one printing and sold sluggishly. Nevertheless, the Leipzig
publisher Eugen Diederichs was convinced of the literary quality of
the work and from the beginning regarded the publications more as encouragement
of a young author than as profitable business.
Beginning in the
fall of 1899, Hesse worked in a distinguished antique book shop in Basel.
There the contacts of his family with the intellectual families of Basel
helped open for him a spiritual-artistic environment with rich stimuli
for his pursuits. At the same time, Basel offered the solitary Hesse
many opportunities for withdrawal into a private life of artistic self-exploration
through journeys and wanderings. In 1900, Hesse was exempted from compulsory
military service due to an eye condition, which, along with nerve disorders
and persistent headaches, affected him his entire life.
In 1901, Hesse undertook
to fulfill a grand dream and travelled for the first time to Italy.
In the same year, Hesse changed jobs and began working at the antiquarium
Wattenwyl in Basel. Hesse had more opportunities to release poems and
small literary texts to journals. These publications now provided honorariums.
Shortly the publisher Samuel Fischer became interested in Hesse, and
with the novel Peter Camenzind, which appeared first as a pre-publication
in 1903 and then as a regular printing by Fischer in 1904, came a breakthrough:
From now on, Hesse could live as a free author.
desk, pictured at the Museum GaienhofenWith the literary fame, Hesse
married Maria Bernoulli in 1904, settled down with her in Gaienhofen
on Lake Constance, and began a family, eventually having three sons.
In Gaienhofen, he wrote his second novel Beneath the Wheel, which appeared
in 1906. In the following time he composed primarily short stories and
poems. His next novel, Gertrude, published in 1910, revealed a production
crisis — he had to struggle through writing it, and he later would
describe it as "a miscarriage."
During this time,
there also was increased dissonance between him and Maria, and in 1911,
Hesse left alone for a long trip to Sri Lanka and Indonesia. Any spiritual
or religious inspiration, for which he hoped, did not find him, but
the journey made a strong impression on his literary work. Following
Hesse's return, the family moved to Bern in 1912, but the change of
environment could not solve the marriage problems, as he himself confessed
in his novel Rosshalde from 1914.
At the outbreak
of the First World War in 1914, Hesse registered himself as a voluntary
with the German government, saying that he could not sit inactively
by a warm fireplace while other young authors were dying on the front.
He was found unfit for combat duty, but was assigned to service involving
the care of war prisoners.
On November 3, 1914
in the Neuen Züricher Zeitung, Hesse's essay O Friends, Not These
Tones (O Freunde, nicht diese Töne) appeared, in which he appealed
to German intellectuals not to fall for nationalism. What followed from
this, Hesse later indicated, was a great turning point in his life:
For the first time he found himself in the middle of a serious political
conflict, attacked by the German press, the recipient of hate mail,
and distanced from by old friends. He did receive continued support
from his friend Theodor Heuss, and also from the French writer Romain
Rolland, whom Hesse visited in August 1915.
This public controversy
was not yet resolved, when a deeper life crisis befell Hesse with the
death of his father on March 8, 1916, the difficult sickness of his
son Martin, and his wife's schizophrenia. He was forced to leave his
military service and begin receiving psychotherapy. This began for Hesse
a long preoccupation with psychoanalysis, through which he came to know
Carl Jung personally, and was challenged to new creative heights: During
a three-week period during September and October 1917, Hesse penned
his novel Demian, which would be published following the armistice in
1919 under the pseudonym Emil Sinclair.
Hermann Hesse in
1925When Hesse returned to civilian life in 1919, his marriage was shattered.
His wife had a severe outbreak of psychosis, but even after her recovery,
Hesse saw no possible future with her. Their home in Bern was divided,
and Hesse resettled alone in the middle of April in Ticino, where he
occupied a small farm house near Minusio bei Locarno, and later lived
from April 25 until May 11 in Sorengo. On May 11, he moved to the town
Montagnola and rented four small rooms in a strange castle-like building,
the 'Casa Camuzzi'.
Here he explored
his writing projects further; he began to paint, an activity which is
reflected in his next major story Klingsor's Last Summer, published
in 1920. In 1922, Hesse's novel Siddhartha appeared, which showed the
love for Indian culture and Buddhist philosophy, which had already developed
at his parent's house. In 1924, Hesse married the singer Ruth Wenger,
the daughter of the Swiss writer Lisa Wenger and aunt of Meret Oppenheim.
This marriage never attained any true stability, however.
In this year, Hesse
received Swiss citizenship. His next major works, Kurgast from 1925
and The Nuremberg Trip from 1927, were autobiographical narratives with
ironic undertones, and which foreshadow Hesse's following novel, Steppenwolf,
which was published in 1927. In the year of his 50th birthday, the first
biography of Hesse appeared, written by his friend Hugo Ball. Shortly
after his new successful novel, he turned away from the solitude of
Steppenwolf and married a Jewish woman, Ninon Dolbin Ausländer.
This change to companionship was reflected in the novel Narcissus and
Goldmund, appearing in 1930.
In 1931, Hesse left
the Casa Camuzzi and moved with Ninon to a large house (Casa Hesse)
near Montagnola, which was built according to his wishes.
The Glass Bead
In 1931, Hesse began planning what would become his last major work,
The Glass Bead Game. In 1932 as a preliminary study, he released the
novella, Journey to the East. Hesse observed the rise to power of National
Socialism in Germany with concern. In 1933, Bertolt Brecht and Thomas
Mann made their travels in exile, and in both cases, were aided by Hesse.
In this way, Hesse attempted to work against Hitler's suppression of
art and literature that protested Nazi ideology.
Since the 1910s,
he had published book reviews in the German press, and now he spoke
publicly in support of Jewish artists and others pursued by the Nazis.
However, when he wrote for the Frankfurter Zeitung, he was accused of
supporting the Nazis, whom Hesse did not openly oppose. From the end
of the 1930s, German journals stopped publishing Hesse's work, and his
work was eventually banned. As spiritual refuge from these political
conflicts and later from the horror of the Second World War, he worked
on the novel The Glass Bead Game which was printed in 1943 in Switzerland.
For this work among his others, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature
After WWII, Hesse's
productivity declined. He wrote short stories and poems, but no more
novels. He occupied himself with the steady stream of letters he received
as a result of the prize and as a new generation of German readers explored
his work. He died on August 9, 1962 and was buried in the cemetery at
San Abbondio in Montagnola, where Hugo Ball is also buried.
1898 - Romantische
Lieder (Romantic Songs)
1899 - Eine Stunde hinter Mitternacht (One Hour After Midnight)
1904 - Peter Camenzind
1906 - Unterm Rad (Beneath the Wheel)
1908 - Freunde (Friends)
1910 - Gertrud (Gertrude)
1914 - Rosshalde
1915 - Knulp
1919 - Demian
1919 - Klein und Wagner (Klein and Wagner)
1919 - Märchen (Strange News from Another Star, short stories)
1920 - Blick ins Chaos (In Sight of Chaos, essays)
1920 - Klingsors letzter Sommer (Klingsor's Last Summer, three novellas)
1922 - Siddhartha
1927 - Die Nürnberger Reise
1927 - Der Steppenwolf (Steppenwolf)
1930 - Narziss und Goldmund (Narcissus and Goldmund)
1932 - Die Morgenlandfahrt (Journey to the East)
1937 - Gedenkblätter (Autobiographical Writings)
1942 - Die Gedichte (Poems)
1943 - Das Glasperlenspiel (The Glass Bead Game, also published as Magister
1946 - Krieg und Frieden (If the War Goes On ...)
1976 - My Belief: Essays on Life and Art
1995 - The Complete Fairy Tales of Hermann Hesse
German poet and
novelist, who has explored in his work the duality of spirit and nature
and individual's spiritual search outside restrictions of the society.
Hesse was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1946. Several of
Hesse's novels depict the protagonist's journey into the inner self.
A spiritual guide assists the hero in his quest for self-knowledge and
shows the way beyond the world "deluded by money, number and time."
"For even the
most childish intoxication with progress will soon be forced to recognize
that writing and books have a function that is eternal. It will become
evident that formulations in words and the handling on of these formulations
through writing are not only important aids but actually the only means
by which humanity can have a history and continuing consciousness of
itself." (Hesse in Reading in Bed, ed. by Steven Gilbar, 1974)
was born into a family of Pietist missionaries and religious publishers
in the Black Forest town of Calw, in the German state of Wüttenberg.
Johannes Hesse, his father, was born a Russian citizen in Weissenstein,
Estonia. Hesse's mother, Marie Gundert, was born in Talatscheri, India,
as the daughter of the Pietist missionary and Indologist, Hermann Gundert.
His parents expected him to follow the family tradition in theology
- they had served as missionaries in India. Hesse entered the Protestant
seminary at Maulbronn in 1891, but he was expelled from the school.
After unhappy experiences at a secular school, Hesse left his studies.
He worked a bookshop clerk, a mechanic, and a book dealer in Tübingen,
where he joined literary circle called Le Petit Cénacle. During
this period Hesse read voluminously and determined the become a writer.
In 1899 Hesse published his first works, ROMANTISCHE LIEDER and EINE
STUNDE HINTER MITTERNACHT.
Hesse became a
freelance writer in 1904 after the publication of his novel PETER CAMENZIND.
In the Rousseauesque 'return to nature' story the protagonist leaves
the big city to live like Saint Francis of Assisi. The book gained literary
success and Hesse married Maria Bernoulli, with whom he had three children.
A visit in India in 1911 was a disappointment but it gave start to Hesse's
studies of Eastern religions and the novel SIDDHARTHA (1922). In the
story, based on the early life of Gautama Buddha, a Brahman son rebels
against his father's teaching and traditions. Eventually he finds the
ultimate enlightenment. The culture of ancient Hindu and the ancient
Chinese had a great influence on Hesse's works. For several years in
the mid-1910s Hesse underwent psychoanalysis under Carl Jung's assistant
In 1912 Hesse and
his family took a permanent residence in Switzerland. In the novel ROSSHALDE
(1914) Hesse explored the question of whether the artist should marry.
The author's replay was negative and reflected the author's own difficulties.
During these years his wife suffered from growing mental instability
and his son was seriously ill. Hesse spent the years of World War I
in Switzerland, attacking the prevailing moods of militarism and nationalism.
He also promoted the interests of prisoners of war. Hesse, who shared
with Aldous Huxley belief in the need for spiritual self-realization,
was called a traitor by his countrymen.
novel was DEMIAN (1919). It was highly praised by Thomas Mann, who compared
its importance to James Joyce's Ulysses and André Gide's The
Counterfeiters. The novel attracted especially young veterans of the
WW I, and reflected Hesse's personal crisis and interest in Jungian
psychoanalysis. Demian was first published under the name of its narrator,
Emil Sinclair, but later Hesse admitted his authorship. In the Faustian
tale the protagonist is torn between his orderly bourgeois existence
and a chaotic world of sensuality. Hesse later admitted that Demian
was a story of "individuation" in the Jungian manner. The
author also praised unreservedly Jung's study Psychological Types, but
in 1921 he suddenly canceled his analysis with Jung and started to consider
him merely one of Freud's most gifted pupils.
Leaving his family
in 1919, Hesse moved to Montagnola, in southern Switzerland. Siddharta
was written during this period. It has been one of Hesse's most widely
read work. Its English translation in the 1950s became a spiritual guide
to a number of American Beat poets. Hesse's short marriage to Ruth Wenger,
the daughter of the Swiss writer Lisa Wenger, was unhappy. He had met
her in 1919 and wrote in 1922 the fairy tale PIKTOR'S VERWANDLUNGEN
for Ruth. In the story a spirit, Piktor, becomes an old tree and finds
his youth again from the love of a young girl. Hesse divorced from Maria
Bernoulli, and married in 1924 Ruth Wenger, but the marriage ended after
a few months. These years produced DER STEPPENWOLF (1927). Cardinal
Joseph Ratzinger, who was elected Pope Benedict XVI, once said that
Steppenwolf is among his favorite books because it "exposes the
problem of modernity's isolated and self-isolating man". The protagonist,
Harry Haller, goes through his mid-life crisis and must chose between
life of action and contemplation. His initials perhaps are not accidentally
like the author's. "The few capacities and pursuits in which I
happened to be strong had occupied all my attention, and I had painted
a picture of myself as a person who was in fact nothing more tan a most
refined and educated specialist in poetry, music and philosophy; and
as such I had lived, leaving all the rest of me to be a chaos of potentialities,
instincts and impulses which I found an encumbrance and gave the label
of Steppenwolf." Haller feels that he has two beings inside him,
and faces his shadow self, named Hermine. This Doppelgänger figure
introduces Harry to drinking, dancing, music, sex, and drugs. Finally
his personality is disassembled and reassembled in the 'Magic Theatre'
- For Madmen Only.
"There is no
reality except the one contained within us. That is why so many people
live such an unreal life. They take the iimages outside them for reality
and never allow the world within to assert itself."
During the Weimar Republic (1919-1933) Hesse stayed aloof from politics.
BETRACHTUNGEN (1928) and KRIEG UND FRIEDEN (1946) were collections of
essays, which reflected his individualism and opposition to mass movements
of the day. NARZISS UND GOLDMUND (1930, Narcissus and Goldmund) was
a pseudomedieval tale about an abbot and his worldly pupil, both in
search of the Great Mother.
In 1931 Hesse married
Ninon Dolbin (1895-1966). Ninon was Jewish. She had sent Hesse a letter
in 1909 when she was 14, and the correspondence had continued. In 1926
they met accientally. At that time Ninon was separated - she had married
the painter B.F. Doldin and planned a career as an art historian. Hesse
moved with her to Casa Bodmer, and his restless life became more calm.
Hesse's books continued to be published in Germany during the Nazi regime,
and were defended in a secret circular in 1937 by Joseph Goebbels. When
he wrote for the Frankfurter Zeitung Jewish refugees in France accused
him of supporting the Nazis, whom Hesse did not openly oppose. However,
he helped political refugees and when Narcissus and Goldmund was reprinted
in 1941, he refused to leave out parts which dealt with pogroms and
anti-Semitism. In 1943 he was placed on the Nazi blacklist.
of Hesse's work lies in the creative power of his poetic similes, in
the "magic theater" of the panoramas of the soul that he conjures
up before the eyes and ears of the world. It lies in the identity of
idea and appearances that, to be sure, his work - like any work of human
hands - can do more that suggest." (Hugo Ball in Hermann Hesse,
In 1931 Hesse began to work on his masterpiece DAS GLASPERLENSPIEL,
which was published in 1943. The setting is in the future in the imaginary
province of Castilia, an intellectual, elitist community, dedicated
to mathematics and music. Knecht ('servant') is chosen by the Old Music
Master as a suitable aspirant to the Order. He goes to the city of Waldzell
to study, and there he catches the attention of the Magister Ludi, Thomas
von der Trave (an allusion to Hesse's rival Thomas Mann). He is the
Master of the Games, a system by which wisdom is communicated. Knecht
dedicates himself to the Game, and on the death of Thomas, he is elected
Magister Ludi. After a decade in his office Knecht tries to leave to
start a life devoted to realizing human rights, but accidentally drowns
in a mountain lake. - In 1942 Hesse sent the manuscript to Berlin for
publication. It was not accepted by the Nazis and the work appeared
in Zürich, Switzerland.
the result of each earnest attempt to go through life with virtue, justice
and understanding and fulfill their requirements. Children live on one
side of despair, the awakened on the other side." (from The Journey
to the East, 1932)
After receiving the Nobel Prize Hesse published no major works. Between
the years 1945 and 1962 he wrote some 50 poems and about 32 reviews
mostly for Swiss newspapers. Hesse died of cerebral hemorrhage in his
sleep on August 9, 1962 at the age of eighty-five. Hesse's other central
works include In Sight of Chaos (1923), a collection of essays, and
the novel Narcissus and Goldmund (1930), set in the Middle Ages and
repeating the theme of two contrasting types of men. In the 1960s and
1970s Hesse became a cult figure for young readers. The interest declined
in the 1980s. The Californian rock group Sparrow changed its name to
Steppenwolf after Hesse's classic, and released 'Born to be Wild' (1968),
which was featured in the film Easy Rider. The name was suggested by
the ABC-Dunhill producer Gabriel Mekler who had read the novel. Hesse's
books have gained readers from the New Age movements and he is still
one of the bestselling German-speaking writers throughout world. A short
1877 - On July 2nd, a son is born in Calw/Württemberg to the Baltic
missionary and later head of the "Calwer Verlagshaus" (Calw
Publishing-House) Johannes Hesse (1847 - 1916) and his wife Marie widow
of Isenberg, nee Gundert (1842 - 1902) elder daughter of the well-known
India expert Herman Gundert.
1881-1886 - Hesse lives with his parents in Basle, where his father
teaches at the "Basler Mission" and in 1883 obtains Swiss
nationality (previously Russian nationality.
1886 - 1889 - The
family returns to Calw.
1890 - 1891 - Grammar
school in Göppingen in order to prepare for the Württemberg
State Examination (July 1891) which is a requirement for a free education
to become a Protestant clergyman in the "Tübinger Stift".
As a State Scholar Hesse has to give up his Swiss civil rights so in
November 1890 his father acquires the Württemberg citizenship for
him (as the only member of the family).
1891 - 1892 - Seminarist
of the Protestant Monastery Seminar in Maulbronn (from Sept 1891 on),
from which he escapes after the 7th month.
1893 - He passes
the "Einjährig-Freiwilligen-Examen" (one year-optional-exam)
in the Grammar School of Cannstatt (in July).
1894 - 1895 - Trainee
at the Calw church clock factory for 15 months.
1895 - 1898 - Book
dealer apprenticeship in Tübingen (book dealer Heckenhauer), first
publication of the poem Das deutsche Dichterheim in Vienna. The first
publication of a book Romantische Lieder appears in October 1898.
1899 - Beginning
of the draft of his novel Schweinigel. In September move to Basle.
1900 - He begins
to write articles and reviews for the "Allgemeine Schweizer Zeitung"
which gave him more than his books a certain local reputation which
very much supported his socializing.
1901 - Die Hinterlassenen
Schriften und Gedichte von Hermann Lauscher are published by Grote,
Berlin dedicated to his mother who died just before publishing.
1903 - In May engagement
to Marie Bernoulli, just before that he finishes the draft of the Camenzind
manuscript, which Hesse sends to Berlin by invitation of S. Fischer
publishers. From October on he writes down Unterm Rad in Calw.
1904 - Peter Camenzind
is published by S. Fischer in Berlin. Marriage to Maria Bernoulli and
move to Gaienhofen at Lake Constance. Freelance author and writer for
numerous papers (Münchner Zeitung, Württemberger Zeitung,
1905 - Birth of
his son Bruno.
1906 - Unterm Rad
published by S. Fischer, Berlin. Setting up of the magazine "März".
Until 1912 Hesse is co-publisher.
1909 - Birth of
his second son Heiner in March
1910 - Gertrud published
by Albert Langen in Munich.
1911 - Birth of
his third son Martin in July. From Sept. to Dec. trip to India with
his friend, the painter Hans Sturzenegger.
1912 - Hesse leaves
Germany for good and moves together with his wife and children to Bern,
into the house of his dead friend, the painter Albert Welti.
1914 - Roßhalde
published in March by S. Fischer, Berlin. At the beginning of the war
Hesse volunteers but is considered unfit for service and is assigned
to the German Embassy in Bern. Numerous political essays, admonitions,
letters to the public, etc in German, Swiss and Austrian papers and
1915 - Knulp published
by S. Fischer, Berlin, Musik des Einsamen new poems published by Eugen
Salzer Heilbronn, Schön ist die Jugend published by S. Fischer,
1916 - Death of
his father. The beginning schizophrenia of his wife and illness of his
youngest son lead to Hesse`s nervous breakdown. First psychotherapeutical
treatment by J. B. Lang, scholar of C. G. Jung.
1917 - Hesse is
advised to stop his journalism on contemporary issues. First use of
nom de plume Emil Sinclair. Draft of Demian.
1919 - Breaking
up of the Bern household. Separation from his wife who is in a mental
institution. Leaving his children with friends. In May move to the Casa
Camuzzi in Montagnola/Ticino where he lives until 1931. Demian is published
by S. Fischer, Berlin under the nom de plume of Emil Sinclair.
1920 - Gedichte
des Malers published by Seldwyla, Bern. Klingsors letzter Sommer published
by S. Fischer, Berlin.
1921 - Ausgewählte
Gedichte published by S. Fischer, Berlin. Crisis with an unproductivity
of almost 11/2 years between the drafts of the first and second part
of Siddhartha. Psychonalysis with C. G. Jung.
1922 - Siddhartha
published by S. Fischer, Berlin.
1923 - In July divorce
from Maria Bernoulli.
1924 - Hesse obtains
Swiss citizenship once more. Marriage to Ruth Wenger.
1925 - Kurgast published
by S. Fischer, Berlin.
1926 - Hesse is
elected a foreign member of the department of creative writing of the
Prussian Academy of Arts, which he leaves again in 1931: I have the
feeling that, in the event of a next war, this academy will contribute
a lot to the group of those 90 or 100 prominent figures, which, as in
1914, will deceive the people by order of the government about every
1927 - Die Nürnberger
Reise und Der Steppenwolf are both published by S. Fischer, Berlin in
time for Hesse`s 50th birthday. By request of his second wife Ruth,
whom he married in 1924, their divorce takes place.
1930 - Narziß
und Goldmund published by S. Fischer, Berlin.
1931 - Move within
Montagnola into a new house, built for him by H. C. Bodmer, and which
is at his disposal for the rest of his life. He weds the arts history
expert Ninon Dolbin, nee Ausländer, who is from Czernowitz.
1932 - 1943 - Hesse
writes Das Glasperlenspiel.
1934 - He becomes
a member of the Swiss Club of Poets for better protection from the Nazi
cultural policies and for more efficient possibilities of intervention
for emigrated colleagues.
1935 - Politically
enforced division of the S. Fischer publishers into a German part (managed
by Peter Suhrkamp) and the Emigration Publishing Company of Gottfried
Bermann Fischer whom the Nazis wont`t allow to take the publishing rights
of Hermann Hesse`s works abroad.
1936 - Hesse nevertheless
has his hexameter poetry Stunden im Garten published by Bermann Fischer`s
Exile Publishing Company in Vienna. First personal meeting with Peter
Suhrkamp in September.
1937 - Gedenkblätter
und Neue Gedichte brought out by S. Fischer, Berlin.
1939 - 1945 - Hesse's
works are declared undesirable in Germany. Unterm Rad, Der Steppenwolf,
Narziß und Goldmund und Eine Bibliothek der Weltliteratur cannot
be reprinted any more.
Therefore the Gesammelte Werke in Einzelausgaben, which S. Fischer had
started to print have to be continued in Switzerland by the publishers
Fretz & Wasmuth.
1942 - S. Fischer
Publishers are denied printing permission for Das Glasperlenspiel.
1943 - Fretz &
Wasmuth, Zürich, publish Das Glasperlenspiel.
1944 - The Gestapo
arrests Peter Suhrkamp, Hesse's publisher.
1946 - Hesse's works
can now be published in Germany again, to begin with by "Suhrkamp
Verlag vorm. S. Fischer", from 1951 on by Suhrkamp Verlag Frankfurt/Main.
Goethe prize of the city of Frankfurt/Main.
1950 - Hesse encourages
and enables Peter Suhrkamp put up his own publishing-house, which takes
place in July.
1951 - Späte
Prosa und Briefe come out at Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/Main.
1952 - Gesammelte
Dichtungen in 6 volumes are published by Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/Main as
a presentation gift for Hesse's 75th birthday.
1954 - Piktors Verwandlung
published by Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/Main.
1955 - Peace prize
of the German Bookdealers.
1956 - Foundation
of the Hermann Hesse prize by the support group of the Deutsche Kunst
Baden-Württemberg e. V.
1962 - Hermann Hesse
dies in Montagnola, Ticino, on August 9th.