extensive biography of Akbar online
Muhammad Akbar, and later titled Emperor of Mughal Empire, (alternative
spellings include Jellaladin, Celalettin) also known as Akbar the Great
OR? BIRTHDATE is
25th oct 1542 2am Sunday morning Delhi India
? Leo rising - Lahiri zodiac
He was born October
15, 1542, in Umarkot, Sindh, and died in October 27, 1605. He was the
son of Humayun whom he succeeded to become ruler of the Mughal Empire
from 1556 until 1605.
was the third Mughal emperor and true founder of the Mughal Empire,
reigning from Afghanistan to the Bay of Bengal and from the Himalayas
to the Godavari River in south. He was the most powerful face on Earth
in the 16th century and considered the greatest of the Mughal emperors.
Akbar did not go
to Persia with his parents, and was raised for a time instead by his
uncle Askari and his wife in the rugged country of Afghanistan rather
than in the splendor of the Persian court. He spent his youth learning
to hunt, run and fight, but he never learned to read or write. However,
despite his illiteracy, Akbar would grow to possess considerable knowledge
and love for Indian literature.
Following the chaos
over the succession of Islam Shah, Humayun reconquered Delhi in 1555,
leading an army partly provided by his Persian ally Shah Tahmasb. Only
a few months later, Humayun died from an accident. Akbar succeeded his
father on February 14, 1556, while in the midst of a war against the
Sikhandar Shah for the reclamation of the Mughal throne.
When Akbar was only
13 years and 9 months old, Humayoon died and Akbar donned a golden robe
and Dark Tiara and was proclaimed "King of Kings". He was
prince, but as a crowned emperor he proved himself a skilled conqueror
and administrator. Not only did he expand his empire’s peripheries
but also explored the various fields of art and patronized them. It
were those ‘nine jewels’ (nau-ratna) coveting various fields,
which pillared his vast empire for almost half a century. His military
valor definitely played the lead in expanding boundaries. Akbar ruled,
when conspiracies were common in every walk of life.During his reign,
he eliminated external military threats .
most lasting contributions were to the arts and to Indian religion.
He made several reforms, and created a compilation of the best things
from every religion. He
initiated a large collection of literature, and incorporated art from
around the world into the Mughal collections. He commissioned the building
of widely admired buildings, including the Panj Mahal. Having a greatly
tolerant attitude of religion, Akbar preserved Hindu temples and began
a series of religious debates where Muslim scholars would debate religious
matters with Sikhs, Hindus, Carvaka atheists and even Jesuits from the
Akbar founded his
own religion, the "Divine Faith"; the religion, however, was
either a form of personality cult for Akbar, or reserved for only upper
nobility of Akbar's court. Historians have only identified 18 members
of this new religion, which quickly dissolved after his death.
Akbar is said to
have been a benevolent and wise ruler, a man of new ideas, and a sound
judge of character. As a ruler, he was able to win the love and reverence
of his subjects. Even a hostile critic described him as having a commanding
personality. He was fearless in the chase as well as in the field of
battle, and, "like Alexander of Macedon, was always ready to risk
his life, regardless of political consequences".
He often plunged
his horse into the full-flooded river during the rainy seasons and safely
crossed over to the other side. Though a mighty conqueror, he did not
usually indulge in cruelty. He is said to be affectionate towards his
relatives. He is said to have been extremely moderate in his diet, eating
fond of fruits and had little liking for meat, which he ceased to take
altogether in his later years. However, some believe he was a hard alcoholic,
inordinate "lust" for women. However,
some historians believe the mention refered to the Emperor's care and
affection to protect women, especially virgins, even though it appears
he permitted wine and prostitution near the palace.
He also married
several Hindu princesses, though many consider that to be politically
motivated rather than a genuine attempt at religious reconciliation.
At the time of Akbar's
rule, the Mughal Empire included both Hindus and Muslims. Profound differences
separate the Islamic and Hindu faith. When Akbar commenced his rule,
a majority of the subjects in the Mughal Empire were Hindus. However,
the rulers of the empire were almost exclusively Muslim. In this highly
polarized society, Akbar fostered tolerance for all religions. He not
only appointed Hindus to high posts, but also tried to remove all distinctions
between the Muslims and non-Muslims. He build a House of Worship, where
he encouraged religious debate. Originally, this debating house was
open only to Sunnis, but later encouraged Hindus, Catholics and even
atheists to participate.
His moves from Islam,
while welcomed by the Hindu majority, where not appreciated by the Muslim
faithful. Rumours were rife that Mosques were being closed and destroyed,
that those who entered his Harem were required to say "There is
no God but Allah, and Akbar is his messenger" a bastardised version
of the traditional Muslim Shahada, or declaration of faith. Ultimately,
despite Akbar's attempts at reconciling the two major faiths, by the
end of the 16th Century community relations were to be worse than when
Akbar ascended to power.
Although Akbar was
illiterate, he took interest in philosophy, theology, history, and politics
and maintained a library full of books on various subjects, and was
fond of the society of scholars, poets and philosophers, who read books
to him aloud. Akbar had a number of Sanskrit scientific works translated
into Persian, as well as it is said Akbar employed a Jesuit missionary
to translate the four Gospels of the New Testament into Persian.
The last few years
of Akbar's reign were troubled by the misconduct of his sons. Two of
them died in their youth, the victims of intemperance. The third, Salim,
later known as Emperor Jahangir, was frequently in rebellion against
his father. Asirgarh, a fort in the Deccan, proved to be the last conquest
of Akbar, taken in 1599 as he proceeded north to face his son's rebellion.
Reportedly, Akbar keenly felt these calamities, and they may even have
affected his health and hastened his death, which occurred in Agra.
His body was interned in a magnificent mausoleum at Sikandra, near Agra.